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Article Details


Metabolic syndrome and myocardial infarction in women

Author(s):

Djuro Macut*, Sanja Ognjanović, Milika Ašanin, Gordana Krljanac and Tatjana Milenković  

Abstract:


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic disorders that arise from insulin resistance (IR) and adipose tissue dysfunction. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Earlier population analyses showed a lower prevalence of MetS in women (23.9%) in comparison to men (27.8%), while later analyses suggested significantly reduced difference due to an increase in prevalence in women aged between 20 and 39. However, the prevalence of MetS in specific populations of women, such as in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, ranges from 16% to almost 50% in some geographic regions. Abdominal fat accumulation and IR syndrome are recognized as the most important factors in the pathogenesis of MetS. After menopause, a decline in insulin sensitivity corresponds to an increase in fat mass, circulating fatty acids, low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides. Prevalence of MetS in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is significantly more present in women (55.9%–66.3%) than in men (40.2%–47.3%) in different cohorts. Younger women with ACS had a higher mortality rate than younger men. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains a leading cause of death in aging women. Women with AMI have significantly higher rates of prior congestive heart failure, hypertension history, and diabetes. The role of androgens in CVD pathogenesis in women has not yet been clarified. The current review aims to give an insight into the role of MetS components and inflammation for the development of atherosclerosis, CVD, and AMI in women.

Keywords:

Metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, women

Affiliation:

Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Diseases of Metabolism, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Diseases of Metabolism, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Clinic for Cardiology, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Clinic for Cardiology, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, University Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, Medical Faculty, University of Skopje, Skopje



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