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Suicide and Genetic Biomarkers: Toward Personalized Tailored-treatment with Lithium and Clozapine

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 30 ]

Author(s):

Domenico De Berardis*, Federica Vellante, Mauro Pettorruso, Lorenza Lucidi, Antonio Tambelli, Ilenia Di Muzio, Giulia Gianfelice, Antonio Ventriglio, Michele Fornaro, Gianluca Serafini, Maurizio Pompili, Giampaolo Perna, Silvia Fraticelli, Giovanni Martinotti and Massimo di Giannantonio   Pages 3293 - 3304 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background: Suicide is a major public health problem on a global scale, with about 800.000 deaths every year. In particular, it represents one of the main causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged between 15 and 29 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) describes suicide as “an act of deliberate killing” and that is placed at the extreme end of the continuous spectrum of suicidal behaviors (SBs). These include suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and suicide itself.

Objective: The aim of the present review was to better clarify the suicide vulnerability genetic biomarkers and genetic variants correlated with the response to lithium and clozapine and to evaluate some correspondences.

Methods: We reviewed the current literature, focusing our attention on genetic molecular studies about neurobiological systems involved in SBs and pharmacogenetic studies about antisuicidal drugs (lithium and clozapine).

Results: The studies that we have reviewed have shown mixed results. Interestingly, rs1800532 polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene, encoding for the serotonin transporter, is potentially correlated with both suicide vulnerability and a poor response to lithium and clozapine.

Conclusion: Due to the impact of suicide on public health, more studies are needed to open a promising route to prevent suicide in personalized and precise psychiatry.

Keywords:

Suicide, genes, genetic polymorphisms, neurobiological systems, lithium, clozapine.

Affiliation:

National Health Service, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, 'G. Mazzini' Hospital, Piazza Italia 1, 64100 Teramo, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, National Health Service, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, 'G. Mazzini' Hospital, Piazza Italia 1, 64100 Teramo, University of Foggia, Foggia, Department of Psychiatry, Federico II University, Naples, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, 16126 Genoa, Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, 20090 Milan, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d'Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti



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