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Prevalence of Non-coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: An Analysis from the HELLAS-FH

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 21 ]

Author(s):

Panagiotis Anagnostis, Christos V. Rizos, Ioannis Skoumas, Loukianos Rallidis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Emmanuel Skalidis, Vasileios Kotsis, Michalis Doumas, Genovefa Kolovou, George Sfikas, Eleni Bilianou, Iosif Koutagiar, Dimitrios Agapakis, Evangelos Zacharis, Christina Antza, Charalambos Koumaras, Chrysoula Boutari, George Liamis and Evangelos N. Liberopoulos*   Pages 2537 - 2544 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Aims: Despite the established link between familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), its association with other common atherosclerotic and metabolic diseases has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) [i.e., common carotid artery disease (CCAD) and lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD)], aortic valve stenosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with FH.

Materials & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study retrieving data from the Hellenic Familial Hypercholesterolemia Registry (HELLAS-FH).

Results: A total of 1,633 adult patients (850 males) with heterozygous FH (HeFH) were included (mean age 51.3±14.6 years at registration and 44.3±15.9 years at diagnosis). Any common carotid artery stenosis (CCAS) was diagnosed in 124 out of 569 patients with available related data (21.8%), while the prevalence of CCAD (defined as a CCAS ≥50%) was 4.2%. The median (interquartile range - IQR) CCAS was 30% (20-40), whereas the median (IQR) carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was 0.7 (0.1-1.4) mm. LEAD was reported in 44 patients (prevalence 2.7%). The prevalence of aortic valve stenosis and CKD was 2.0% and 6.4%, respectively. NAFLD was present in 24% of study participants.

Conclusions: HeFH is associated with a relatively high prevalence of any CCAS and CCAD. The prevalence of LEAD, CKD and aortic valve stenosis was relatively low, whereas the prevalence of NAFLD was similar to that of the general population.

Keywords:

Familial hypercholesterolemia, HELLAS-FH, carotid artery disease, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic steatosis, peripheral arterial disease, lower extremity arterial disease, aortic stenosis.

Affiliation:

Department of Endocrinology, Police Medical Centre of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Cardiology Clinic, Hippokration General Hospital, Athens, Department of Cardiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Attikon University General Hospital, Athens, 1st Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Cardiology Clinic, University General Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General Hospital Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2nd Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Cardiometabolic Center, Lipid Clinic, LA apheresis Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, Department of Internal Medicine, 424 General Military Training Hospital, Thessaloniki, Cardiology Clinic, “Tzaneio” General Hospital, Piraeus, Cardiology Clinic, Hippokration General Hospital, Athens, 1st Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Cardiology Clinic, University General Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General Hospital Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Internal Medicine, 424 General Military Training Hospital, Thessaloniki, 2nd Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina



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