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Exploring the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Potential of Steroid and Terpenoid-Derived Phytochemicals to Combat Alzheimer's Disease

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 22 ]

Author(s):

Md. Tanvir Kabir, Md. Sahab Uddin*, Sonia Zaman, Md. Sohanur Rahman, Tapan Behl, Ausaf Ahmad, Abdul Hafeez, Asma Perveen and Ghulam Md. Ashraf*   Pages 2635 - 2647 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder that significantly affects cognitive functions in a way that causes loss of memory, thinking, and behavior. Multiple studies revealed that neuroinflammation associated with AD is linked with the amyloid-beta deposition in the brain. Elevated levels of expression of cytokines, microglial activation, nuclear factor kappa B, and reactive oxygen species play roles in AD-related inflammatory processes. Indeed, effective therapeutic approaches are urgently required to develop therapeutic agents to prevent and treat AD. So far, many anti-AD drug candidates have failed in the clinical stages and currently available drugs only provide symptomatic treatment. In recent times, pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been found to possess promising anti-neuroinflammatory effects; therefore, these natural products can be useful in AD treatment. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the role of neuroinflammation and the molecular processes altered by multiple steroid and terpenoid-derived phytochemicals in various AD-related neuroinflammatory pathways. Indeed, steroid and terpenoid-derived phytochemicals show important therapeutic activities, which can be useful in ameliorating and treating AD-related neurodegeneration.

Keywords:

Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects, Alzheimer's disease, phytochemicals, steroids, terpenoids, neurodegeneration.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, Brac University, Dhaka, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh, Glocal School of Pharmacy, Glocal University, Saharanpur, Glocal School of Life Sciences, Glocal University, Saharanpur, Pre-Clinical Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah



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