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Sex Differences and Emerging New Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis and Its Thrombotic Complications

Author(s):

Teresa Padro*, Natalia Muñoz-Garcia, Esther Peña and Lina Badimon   Pages 1 - 12 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) stays as the world's leading cause of death and disability in both men and women, but with different prognostic and outcome between sexes. Although the burden of CVD is generally related to the conventional risk factors, the relevance of non-traditional risk factors is increasingly recognized to explain the so-called “residual risk”. Men and women share many similarities regarding classical cardiovascular risk factors, but have different disease pathophysiology, clinical presentations, prevalence and outcome of CVD. How sex-specificities regarding effects of nontraditional risk factors may contribute to the evolution of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in male and female remain largely under-analyzed. The present review summarizes the current knowledge for sex differences in atherosclerotic plaque composition and clinical evolution in association to risk factors such as inflammation, lipoprotein(a), haemostasis, intraplaque calcification and depression. We further discuss the potential sex-differential impact of chronic infectious diseases, gut microbiome and, epigenetic gene expression regulation for atherosclerosis and the effect of female-specific disorders in CVD.

Keywords:

nontraditional risk factors, male, female, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, cardiovascular disease, microvascular dysfunction, plaque burden, coronary arteries

Affiliation:

Cardiovascular-Program ICCC; Research Institute Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau; IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Cardiovascular-Program ICCC; Research Institute Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau; IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Cardiovascular-Program ICCC; Research Institute Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau; IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Cardiovascular-Program ICCC; Research Institute Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau; IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona



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