Elisardo C. Vasquez *, Rafaela Aires , Alyne M. M. Ton and Fernanda G. Amorim Pages 3700 - 3710 ( 11 )
The mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases have been the focus of experimental and clinical studies for decades. The relationship between the gut microbiota and the organs and system tissues represents the research field that has generated the highest number of publications. Homeostasis of the gut microbiota is important to the host because it promotes maturation of the autoimmune system, harmonic integrative functions of the brain, and the normal function of organs related to cardiovascular and metabolic systems. On the other hand, when a gut microbiota dysbiosis occurs, the target organs become vulnerable to the onset or aggravation of complex chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular (e.g., arterial hypertension) and neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) diseases. In the present brief review, we discuss the main mechanisms involved in those disturbances and the promising beneficial effects that have been revealed using functional food (nutraceuticals), such as the traditional probiotic Kefir. Here, we highlight the current scientific advances, concerns, and limitations about the use of this nutraceutical. The focus of our discussion is the endothelial dysfunction that accompanies hypertension and the neurovascular dysfunction that characterizes ageing-related dementia in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease.
Gut microbiota, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, neurovascular dysfunction, probiotics, Kefir.
Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Vila Velha University (UVV), Vila Velha, ES, Physiological Sciences Graduate Program, Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES, Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Vila Velha University (UVV), Vila Velha, ES, Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Vila Velha University (UVV), Vila Velha, ES