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The Mediating Effect of Different Exercise Programs on the Immune Profile of Frail Older Women with Cognitive Impairment

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 9 ]

Author(s):

Guilherme E. Furtado*, Matheus U. Chupel, Lucielle G. Minuzzi, Luís Rama, Juan C. Colado, Eef Hogervorst, José P. Ferreira and Ana M. Teixeira*   Pages 906 - 915 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Background: Frail individuals experience an accelerated immunosenescence, and exercise has been identified as a therapy to promote a better inflammatory environment.

Objective: To analyze the effects of 28-weeks of two different exercise protocols on the functional fitness and immune profiles of institutionalized pre-frail and frail women with mild cognitive impairment.

Methods: Participants residing in care homes (n=60, 81±7.84 years old) were randomized into three groups: a chair elastic band muscle-strength exercise (CSE, n=21; 81±4.79), a chair multimodal exercise (CME, n=20; 80±8.19), and a control non-exercise (CGne, n=19; 80±10.01). Both CME and CSE groups performed progressive circuit-training exercise sessions. The controls did not change their usual lifestyle. The Fried protocol and the Mini-Mental State Examination questionnaire were used to identify the frail subgroups and the participants with mild cognitive impairment. Data for anti and pro-inflammatory markers and physical fitness were analyzed pre and post-interventions.

Results: After the intervention, a significant effect of time and time by group for sIgA and time by group for IL- 10 levels were found (p > 0.05). Within-group analysis showed a significant moderate decrease in the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio for the CME group and an increase in the controls (p > 0.05) and a slight reduction in the IL-6 and IL- 1β concentrations. The controls showed a negative trend towards a decrease in physical fitness and a trend for increased levels in the pro-inflammatory markers IL-6 and IL-1β.

Conclusion: The evidence regarding the use of systematic and moderate long-term exercise as therapy for promoting a better balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory environments and a decrease in the inflammatory index for the CME group were the most promising results from this study.

Keywords:

Frail older adults, muscle-strength, multimodal, exercise, cytokines, inflammation, upper respiratory tract infector.

Affiliation:

Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF (UID/PTD/04213/2019), Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (FCDEF-UC) - University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF (UID/PTD/04213/2019), Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (FCDEF-UC) - University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF (UID/PTD/04213/2019), Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (FCDEF-UC) - University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF (UID/PTD/04213/2019), Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (FCDEF-UC) - University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Reserch Unit in Sport and Health, Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF (UID/PTD/04213/2019), Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (FCDEF-UC) - University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF (UID/PTD/04213/2019), Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (FCDEF-UC) - University of Coimbra, Coimbra



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