Zahra Sobhani, Saeed Reza Nami, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Amirhossein Sahebkar and Behjat Javadi* Pages 2428 - 2443 ( 16 )
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named “The treatise on cardiac drugs” which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs.Methods: Here, we perform a detailed search in scientific databases to verify the cardiovascular activities of the medicinal plants suggested by Avicenna. Also, we discussed cardiovascular activities of a number of the most important suggested plants as well as their efficacy in clinical studies. Major bioactive compounds identified from these plants are also discussed. Results: Pharmacological studies have revealed that the majority of these plants are effective in cardiovascular health with various mechanisms. Among them, Crocus sativus L., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Melissa officinalis L. and Phyllanthus emblica L. have proved to be more effective. Conclusion: The above-mentioned plants can be rich sources for developing new and effective pharmaceuticals for the treatment of CVDs.
Curcumin, endothelial function, flow-mediated vasodilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, pulse wave velocity, adhesion molecules, traditional persian medicine, cardiovascular diseases, avicenna, medicinal plants, saffron, pomegranate.
Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Cardiac Anesthesia Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, School of Pharmacy, Vakilabad Blvd., Mashhad 917751365