Mariana Spetea, Muhammad Faheem Asim, Gerhard Wolber and Helmut Schmidhammer Pages 7415 - 7434 ( 20 )
Although the µ opioid receptor (MOR) was pharmacologically and biochemically identified in binding studies forty years ago, its structure, function, and true complexity only have emerged after its cloning in 1993. Continuous efforts from many laboratories have greatly advanced our understanding of MORs, ranging from their anatomic distribution to cellular and molecular mechanisms, and from cell lines to in vivo systems. The MOR is recognized as the main target for effective pain relief, but its involvement in many other physiological functions has also been recognized. This review provides a synopsis on the history of research on MORs and ligands acting at the MOR with the focus on their clinical and potential use as therapeutic drugs, or as valuable research tools. Since the elucidation of the chemical structure of morphine and the characterization of endogenous opioid peptides, research has stimulated the development of new generations of MOR ligands with distinct pharmacological profiles (agonist, antagonist, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist) or site of action (central/peripheral). Discovery of therapeutically useful morphine-like drugs and innovative drugs with new scaffolds, with several outstanding representatives, is discussed. Extensive efforts on modifications of endogenous peptides to attain stable and MOR selective analogs are overviewed with stimulating results for the development of peptide-based pharmaceuticals. With pharmacophore modeling as an important tool in drug discovery, application of modern computational methodologies for the development of morphinans as new MOR ligands is described. Moreover, the crystal structure of the MOR available today will enable the application of structurebased approaches to design better drugs for the management of pain, addiction and other human diseases, where MORs play a key role.
µ Opioid receptor, pain, agonist, antagonist, morphine, morphinans, pharmacophore.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.