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Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: A New "Cells as Drugs" Paradigm. Efficacy and Critical Aspects in Cell Therapy

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 13 ]


Laura de Girolamo, Enrico Lucarelli, Giulio Alessandri, Maria Antonietta Avanzini, Maria Ester Bernardo, Ettore Biagi, Anna Teresa Brini, Giovanna D’Amico, Franca Fagioli, Ivana Ferrero, Franco Locatelli, Rita Maccario, Mario Marazzi, Ornella Parolini, Augusto Pessina and Maria Luisa Torre ; Italian Mesenchymal Stem Cell Group (GISM)   Pages 2459 - 2473 ( 15 )


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were first isolated more than 50 years ago from the bone marrow. Currently MSCs may also be isolated from several alternative sources and they have been used in more than a hundred clinical trials worldwide to treat a wide variety of diseases. The MSCs mechanism of action is undefined and currently under investigation. For in vivo purposes MSCs must be produced in compliance with good manufacturing practices and this has stimulated research on MSCs characterization and safety. The objective of this review is to describe recent developments regarding MSCs properties, physiological effects, delivery, clinical applications and possible side effects.


Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, cell therapy, graft versus host disease, immunomodulatory properties, regenerative medicine, advanced therapy medicinal product, transplantation, MSCs sources, clinical trials, clinical applications


Laboratorio Colture Cellulari, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche e Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Pascal 36, 20133 Milan, Italy.

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