Davide Grassi, Livia Ferri, Giovambattista Desideri, Paolo Di Giosia, Paola Cheli, Rita Del Pinto, Giuliana Properzi and Claudio Ferri Pages 2432 - 2438 ( 7 )
Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure reduction, increment in flow-mediated dilation, and improved cardiovascular prognosis in various patient settings. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted with either allopurinol or its active metabolite oxypurinol, i.e. two purine-like non-selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. More recently, the role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the possible protective role exerted by reduction of hyperuricemia to normal level have been evaluated by the use of febuxostat, a selective, non purine-like xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In this review, we will report current evidence on hyperuricemia in cardiovascular disease. The value of uric acid as a biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for tailored old and novel “cardiometabolic” treatments will be also discussed.
Uric acid, allopurinol, febuxostat, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, hyperuricemia, prognosis, xanthine inhibitors, cardiovascular disease, oxypurinol
University of L’Aquila - Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health, Viale S. Salvatore, Delta 6 Building, 67100 Coppito, L’Aquila, Italy.