Pranav K. Prabhakar and Ponnurengam M. Sivakumar* Pages 2526 - 2539 ( 14 )
Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine non-communicable metabolic disorders which is mainly caused either due to insufficient insulin or inefficient insulin or both together and is characterized by hyperglycemia. Diabetes emerged as a serious health issue in the industrialized and developing country especially in the Asian pacific region. Out of the two major categories of diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes is more prevalent, almost 90 to 95% cases, and the main cause of this is insulin resistance. The main cause of the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been found to be insulin resistance. The type 2 diabetes mellitus may be managed by the change in lifestyle, physical activities, dietary modifications and medications. The major currently available management strategies are sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist. Binding of insulin on the extracellular unit of insulin receptor sparks tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor which induces autophosphorylation. The phosphorylation of the tyrosine is regulated by insulin and leptin molecules. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) works as a negative governor for the insulin signalling pathways, as it dephosphorylates the tyrosine of the insulin receptor and suppresses the insulin signalling cascade. The compounds or molecules which inhibit the negative regulation of PTP1B can have an inductive effect on the insulin pathway and finally help in the management of diabetes mellitus. PTP1B could be an emerging therapeutic strategy for diabetes management. There are a number of clinical and basic research results which suggest that induced expression of PTP1B reduces insulin resistance. In this review, we briefly elaborate and explain the place of PTP1B and its significance in diabetes as well as a recent development in the PTP1B inhibitors as an antidiabetic therapy.
Diabetes, PTP1B, inhibitors, insulin signalling, obesity, leptin.
Research & Development, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144411, Center for Molecular Biology, Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Da Nang