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Review Article

Lipid-Based Vectors for Therapeutic mRNA-Based Anti-Cancer Vaccines

[ Vol. 25 , Issue. 13 ]


Maria L. Guevara, Stefano Persano* and Francesca Persano   Pages 1443 - 1454 ( 12 )


Cancer vaccines have been widely explored as a key tool for effective cancer immunotherapy. Despite a convincing rationale behind cancer vaccines, extensive past efforts were unsuccessful in mediating significantly relevant anti-tumor activity in clinical studies. One of the major reasons for such poor outcome, among others, is the low immunogenicity of more traditional vaccines, such as peptide-, protein- and DNA- based vaccines. Recently, mRNA emerged as a promising alternative to traditional vaccine strategies due to its high immunogenicity, suitability for large-scale and low-cost production, and superior safety profile. However, the clinical application of mRNA-based anti-cancer vaccines has been limited by their instability and inefficient in vivo delivery. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues and lipid-based vectors have demonstrated encouraging results as mRNA vaccine platforms against several types of cancers. This review intends to provide a detailed overview of lipid-based vectors for the development of therapeutic mRNA-based anti-tumor vaccines.


Cancer, immunotherapy, nanoparticles, mRNA, vaccines, liposome, non-viral vectors.


Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, Lecce

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