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Small-Molecule HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: the 2001-2002 Update

[ Vol. 9 , Issue. 22 ]


Raveendra Dayam and Nouri Neamati   Pages 1789 - 1802 ( 14 )


Integration of viral DNA into host cell chromosomal DNA to form a provirus is an essential step in the viral life cycle. This process is mediated by integrase (IN), a 32 KDa viral enzyme. The unique properties of IN makes it an ideal target for drug design. First, there are no cellular homologues to IN and the reactions catalyzed by IN are unique. Second, IN is absolutely required for viral replication and mutations in a number of key residues dramatically block viral replication. Third, IN has been validated as a legitimate target and the results from S-1360 (1) the only available IN inhibitor under clinical trials suggest synergistic effect with reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors. During the past 10 years a plethora of inhibitors have been identified and some were shown to be selective against IN and block viral replication. The two most predominant classes of inhibitors have been the catechol containing hydroxylated aromatics and more recently the diketoacid containing aromatics. Herein, we review all small molecule compounds reported to inhibit recombinant HIV-1 IN with IC50 values ≤ 20 μM during the past two years. It is important to bear in mind that the true mechanism of action and antiviral activities of many of the compounds are currently not established. However, based on the growing body of literature certain classes of compounds can be easily excluded as bona fide IN inhibitors.


hiv-1 integrase,structure-based drug design,inhibitors,drug discovery,s-1360,5-citep


, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, 1985Zonal Avenue, PSC 304A, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9121, USA.

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