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Review Article

Probiotics and Paraprobiotics in Viral Infection: Clinical Application and Effects on the Innate and Acquired Immune Systems

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 6 ]


Osamu Kanauchi*, Akira Andoh, Sazaly AbuBakar and Naoki Yamamoto   Pages 710 - 717 ( 8 )


Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases. We discuss the unique roles of these agents in modulating the cross-talk between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. In addition, we provide an overview of the unique mechanism by which viruses are eliminated through the stimulation of type 1 interferon production by probiotics and paraprobiotics via the activation of dendritic cells. Although further detailed research is necessary in the future, probiotics and/or paraprobiotics are expected to be among the rational adjunctive options for the treatment of various viral diseases.


Probiotics, paraprobiotics, virus infection, interferon, plasmacytoid dendritic cell, vaccines.


Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre (TIDREC), Level 4, Block N & O, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519

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