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Review Article

From PK/PD to QSP: Understanding the Dynamic Effect of Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs on Atherosclerosis Progression and Stratified Medicine

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 46 ]


Cesar Pichardo-Almarza and Vanessa Diaz-Zuccarini   Pages 6903 - 6910 ( 8 )


Current computational and mathematical tools are demonstrating the high value of using systems modeling approaches (e.g. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology) to understand the effect of a given compound on the biological and physiological mechanisms related to a specific disease. This review provides a short survey of the evolution of the mathematical approaches used to understand the effect of particular cholesterol-lowering drugs, from pharmaco-kinetic (PK) / pharmaco-dynamic (PD) models, through physiologically base pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) to QSP. These mathematical models introduce more mechanistic information related to the effect of these drugs on atherosclerosis progression and demonstrate how QSP could open new ways for stratified medicine in this field.


Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins, atherosclerosis, mathematical modeling, simulation, personalized medicine.


UCL Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Roberts Building, Torrington Place, WC1E 7JE, London

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