M. T.M. Raijmakers, W. H.M. Peters, E. A.P. Steegers and L. Poston Pages 711 - 734 ( 24 )
New knowledge of placental development and function suggests that several common complications of pregnancy could share a similar origin. It is suggested that impaired placental development in early pregnancy may lead to placental oxidative stress and subsequently to the maternal syndromes such as recurrent early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Oxidative stress has been most extensively investigated in pre-eclampsia, resulting in hundreds of publications and many reviews. In general the literature points to the presence of placental and maternal oxidative stress. However, conformity amongst the relevant data is not absolute, most probably the result of the diversity of biomarkers investigated and the methods employed to assess oxidative stress, which generally depend on the assessment of end products of oxidative stress. Recently, new techniques have been developed that use different approaches based on the “real-time” measurement of oxidative stress by the redox status of thiols or the assessment of superoxide generation, whereas the role of Phase I/Phase II biotransformation pathways in oxidative stress was recognised. This review focuses on this biotransformation system, the thiol redox status and the involvement of these systems in oxidative stress associated with reproduction and pregnancy disorders, with the emphasis being laid on the syndrome of pre-eclampsia.
antioxidants, biomarkers, biotransformation, oxidative stress
Maternal and Fetal Research Unit, Division of Reproductive Health, Endocrinology and Development, St.Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom.