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Mechanisms of ERK1/2 Regulation by Seven-Transmembrane-Domain Receptors

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 14 ]

Author(s):

Tim D. Werry, Arthur Christopoulos and Patrick M. Sexton   Pages 1683 - 1702 ( 20 )

Abstract:


Control of cell growth and differentiation has long been a focus of intense research interest, particularly in the context of cancer therapeutics. The evolutionarily-conserved extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are serine-threonine kinases that respond to a wide range of mitogens and growth factors to initiate changes in cellular proliferation and differentiation, and are the most important members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in terms of seven transmembrane-domain receptor (7TMR)-mediated regulation of mitogenic processes. Regulation of the ERK1/2 signaling cascade by 7TMRs is highly complex and cell type-specific. Recent advances in our knowledge of this effector pathway have revealed that its regulation is at least partly independent of traditional G protein-mediated actions arising from the stimulation of 7TMRs. This review summarizes the current position of our knowledge of ERK1/2 regulation, and illustrates the wealth of potential targets available for the development of new strategies for the treatment of proliferative and other ERK-related disorders.

Keywords:

PKC activation, Raf, phosphorylation, gsp oncogene, adrenoceptor, Scaffolding Proteins

Affiliation:

Howard Florey Institute,National Neuroscience Facility, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC3010, Australia.



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