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Role of lipopolysaccharides in potential applications of nanocarrier systems

Author(s):

Pravin Shende* and Shubham Gupta  

Abstract:


Background: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are considered the main molecular component in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The LPS molecule in the bacterial cell wall acts as a primary physical barrier and protects gram-negative bacteria from the surrounding environment. LPS (endotoxins) show immunomodulatory therapeutic properties as well as toxicity to the host cell, whereas potential applications encompass.

Objective: This review article aims to describe the recent developments of lipopolysaccharides in nanocarrier systems for various applications such as vaccination, cancer chemotherapy and immune stimulants action. Different nanocarriers like cubosomes, niosomes, dendrimers and metal nanoparticles used in the delivery of actives are employed to decorate lipopolysaccharide molecules superficially.

Methods: A narrative review of all the relevant papers known to the author was conducted.

Conclusion: Commercially available lipid nanoparticles contribute to many advances as promising nanocarriers in cancer therapy and are used as a vaccine adjuvant by improving the immune response due to their properties such as size, shape, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Whereas lipopolysaccharide-decorated nanoparticles change the host's tolerability and increase the effectiveness of molecule in cancer immunotherapy. These nanoconjugate systems enhance overall immunogenic response and effectiveness in vaccine immunotherapy and targeted therapy, not only limited to humans application but also for poultry and aquaculture. Newer opportunities using lipopolysaccharides for the treatment and management of diseases with unique characteristics like the presence of lipoprotein that act as an alternative for bacterial infections over conventional dosage forms.

Keywords:

Lipopolysaccharides, nano-conjugated vaccines, OMVs vaccines, bacterial vaccines, submicron vaccines, prophylactic vaccines, Cancer immunotherapy

Affiliation:

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM’S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM’S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai



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