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Article Details


Prospective for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy

Author(s):

Faiza Idris Himasa, Manmohan Singhal, Abhijeet Ojha and Bhavna Kumar*  

Abstract:


Diabetic retinopathy is posterior eye disorder in which a damage occurs to the light sensitive retina due to diabetes mellitus, and affects people aged 18 - 64 with type ІІ diabetes. This disease progresses through different pathophysiological pathways. This includes oxidative stress, inflammation, stimulation of the growth factor in the eye’s vasculature, isoforms of protein kinase C, and also the activation of the hexosamine pathway. It starts as micro aneurysms and advances in complicated stage which results in retinal detachment. Treatment of posterior eye diseases has complications which are due to the structural design of the eye and physiological barriers present. The current treatment approach involves use of intravitreal anti-VEGFs, corticosteroids implants, laser and surgery; these treatment methods have drawbacks attributed to them despite their benefits. Development of a robust delivery system with minimal or no invasion to tackle the issues of diabetic retinopathy will be of considerable benefit to patients having diabetic retinopathy; the dependency on ophthalmologists for multiple injections will significantly reduce and provide a promising approach in drug delivery. In this review article, the authors provided information related to existing treatment methods available for diabetic retinopathy, the most significant nanotechnology approach through which local delivery via the ocular route to posterior eye can be achieved. It also possesses the various carriers studied for the non-invasive approach for retinal delivery of medicaments. Non-invasive approach for delivery of drugs can be considered as potential for treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

Keywords:

Diabetic retinopathy, Non-invasive, Posterior eye, Retinal diseases, ophthalmic preparations, Nanotechnology

Affiliation:

Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehradun248009, Uttarakhand, Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehradun248009, Uttarakhand, Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehradun248009, Uttarakhand, Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehradun248009, Uttarakhand



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