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Nanocarriers Loaded with Oxygen to Improve the Protection of the Heart to be Transplanted


Claudia Penna, Francesco Trotta, Roberta Cavalli and Pasquale Pagliaro*  


In the case of serious cardiovascular diseases, such as refractory heart failure, heart transplantation is the only possible intervention. Currently, the modes of organ transport in hypothermic cardioplegic solution do not allow the implantation of the heart beyond 4-5 hours from the explant. The heart being an organ with a greater consumption of oxygen and high metabolism than the brain, its transport in hypothermic cardioplegic solutions presents critical issues in terms of time and conservation. An ambitious goal of many researchers and clinicians is to minimize the hypoxia of the explanted heart and extend the permanence time in cardioplegic solution without damage from hypoxia. Adequately oxygenating the explanted organs may extend the usability time of the explanted organ. This challenge has been pursued for years with approaches that are often expensive, risky, and/or difficult to use. We propose to consider oxygenated nanocarriers realizing oxygen for a long time. In this way, it will also be possible to use organs from distant countries with respect to the recipient, thus exceeding the canonical 4-5 hours tolerated up to now. In addition to the lack of oxygen, the transplanted organ can undergo the accumulation of catabolites due to the lack of perfusion during transport. Therefore, nanocarriers can also be perfused in adequate solution during organ transportation. A better oxygenation improving the postoperative recovery of the transplanted heart will improve the recipient's quality of life.


α-cyclodextrin, α-cyclodextrin nanosponges, cyclic nigerosyl-nigerose, oxygen, hypoxia, reoxygenation, organ transplantation, nanocarriers


Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, 10043 Turin, Department of Chemistry, University of Turin, 10125 Turin, Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, 10125 Turin, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, 10043 Turin

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