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Perfluorocarbons therapeutics in modern cancer nanotechnology for hypoxia-induced anti-tumor therapy

Author(s):

Saurabh Satija, Prabal Sharma*, Harpreet Kaur, Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Reena Singh Chopra, Navneet Khurana, Manish Vyas, Neha Sharma, Murtaza M. Tambuwala, Hamid A. Bakshi, Nitin B. Charbe, Flavia C Zacconi, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Kamal Dua and Meenu Mehta*  

Abstract:


With an estimated failure rate of about 90%, immunotherapies that are intended for the treatment of solid tumors have caused an anomalous rise in the mortality rate over the past decades. It is apparent that resistance towards such therapies primarily occurs due to elevated levels of HIF-1 (Hypoxia-induced factor) in tumor cells, which are caused by disrupted microcirculation and diffusion mechanisms. With the advent of nanotechnology, several innovative advances were brought to the fore; and, one such promising direction is the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the management of solid tumors. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance the response of hypoxia-based agents (HBAs) within the tumor cells and have been found to augment the entry of HBAs into the tumor micro-environment. The heightened penetration of HBAs causes chronic hypoxia, thus aiding in the process of cell quiescence. In addition, this technology has also been applied in photodynamic therapy, where oxygen self-enriched photosensitizers loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are employed. The resulting processes initiate a cascade, depleting tumour oxygen and turning it into a reactive oxygen species eventually to destroy the tumour cell. This review elaborates on the multiple applications of nanotechnology based perfluorocarbon formulations that are being currently employed in the treatment of tumour hypoxia.

Keywords:

Tumour Hypoxia; nanotechnology, perfluorocarbons; HBA; HIF-1, Cancer

Affiliation:

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Bioengineering and BioSciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Bioengineering and BioSciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 1010 West Avenue B, MSC 131, Kingsville, Texas, 78363, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña McKenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago, Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab



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