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The Factors Determining the Skin Penetration and Cellular Uptake of Nanocarriers: New Hope for Clinical Development


Afsaneh Farjami, Sara Salatin*, Samira Jafari, Mohammad Mahmoudian and Mitra Jelvehgari   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )


The skin provides a protective barrier against toxic environments and also offers a valuable route for topical drug delivery. The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of the skin and serves as the major barrier to chemical transfer through the skin. The human skin barrier is particularly difficult to overcome because of the complex composition and structure of the SC. Nanoparticulate carriers have gained widespread attention in topical drug delivery due to their tunable and versatile properties. The present review summarizes the main factors involved in skin penetration of nanocarriers containing the drug. Employment of nanotechnology in topical delivery has grown progressively during recent years; however, it is important to monitor the skin penetration of nanocarriers prior to their use to avoid possible toxic effects. Nanocarriers can act as a means to increase skin permeation of drugs by supporting direct interaction with the SC and increasing the period of permanence on the skin. Skin penetration is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of nanocarriers such as composition, size, shape, surface chemistry, as well as skin features. Considering that the target of topical systems based on nanocarriers is the penetration of therapeutic agents in the skin layers, so a detailed understanding of the factors influencing skin permeability of nanocarriers is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic applications.


Cellular uptake, nanocarriers, stratum corneum, skin permeability, endocytosis, topical drug delivery, transdermal delivery.


Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz

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