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An assessment of in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation methods for theranostic nanomaterials

Author(s):

Poonam Parashar, Neelu Singh, Alka Alka, Priyanka Maurya and Shubhini A. Saraf*  

Abstract:


Nanoparticles (NPs) as nanocarriers have emerged as novel and promising theranostic agents. The term theranostics revealed the properties of NPs capable of diagnosing the disease at an early stage and/or treating the disease. Such NPs are usually developed employing a surface engineering approach. The theranostic agents comprise NPs loaded with a drug/diagnostic agent that delivers it precisely to the target site. Theranostics is a field with promising results in enhancing therapeutic efficacy facilitated through higher payload at the targeted tissue, reduced dose, and dose-dependent side effects. However, controversies in terms of toxicity and size-dependent properties have often surfaced for NPs. Thus, a stringent in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation is required to develop safe and non-toxic NPs as theranostic agents. The review also focuses on the various entry points of NPs in the human system and their outcomes, including toxicity. It elaborates the evaluation criteria to ensure the safe use of NPs for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Keywords:

Theranostics, Nanoparticles, Toxicity, Pharmacokinetic

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, U.P. 226025, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, U.P. 226025, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, U.P. 226025, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, U.P. 226025, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, U.P. 226025



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