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Association of Viruses in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases


Bisma Rauff *, Arif Malik, Yasir Ali Bhatti , Shafiq Ahmad Chudhary, Kaneez Fatima, Shafquat Rafiq , Aisha Tahir, Sumaira Sharif and Ishtiaq Qadri   Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), primarily inflammatory cardiomyopathy, are characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the myocardium. It has a relatively high risk of deteriorating heart function and has heterogeneous etiologies. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is mainly mediated by viral infections but can also be mediated by protozoa, fungal or bacterial infections. Besides that, there are a wide variety of drugs, toxic substances, and systemic immune-mediated diseases that result in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Despite broad research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy has a poor prognosis. The roles of the pathogens, host genomic counterparts and environmental triggers in the progression of disease are still under consideration, including the role of some viruses as active inducers and others as bystanders. In this review article, we review the available evidence on the types, pathogenesis and treatment of myocarditis, inflammatory cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis with a particular focus on virus-associated cardiac diseases.


COVID-19, Cardiovirus, Echovirus, Coxsackievirus, Cytomegalovirus, HSV-1 and 2, Parvovirus B19, Hepatitis viruses, Influenza viruses.


Storr Liver Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead Hospital and University of Sydney, NSW, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), University of Lahore, Lahore, Avecina Medical College, Lahore, Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences (IBAHS), University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Department of Biology, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, Croydon University Hospital NHS Trust, 503 London Road, Croydon CR7 7YE, Department of Biochemistry, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), University of Lahore, Lahore, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah

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