Athanasios Manolis, Manolis Kallistratos* and Michael Doumas
In heart failure (HF) patients, current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommends the use of three loop diuretics (furosemide, torasemide, bumetanide) in order to reduce HF hospitalizations but also to improve symptoms and exercise capacity in patients with signs and/or symptoms of congestion. In addition, for the first time in hypertensive patients, European Society of Hypertension (ESH) guidelines recommend the use of torasemide. This review aimed to summarize the mode of action of loop diuretics, to present their pharmacokinetic characteristics, and to discuss their place in the management of arterial hypertension and heart failure, with special emphasis however on torasemide.
loop diuretics, torasemide, heart failure, hypertension, thiazide diuretics, furosemide, bumetanide.
Cardiology Department, Asklepeion Hospital, Athens, Cardiology Department, Asklepeion Hospital, Athens, 2nd Prop Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki