Andreas Daiber*, Sebastian Steven, Gerhild Euler and Rainer Schulz
Cardiac and vascular diseases are often associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and both may contribute to the disease progression. However, successful applications of antioxidants in the clinical setting are very rare and specific anti-inflammatory therapeutics only emerged recently. Reasons for this rely on the great diversity of oxidative stress and inflammatory cells that can either act as cardioprotective or cause tissue damage in the heart. Recent large-scale clinical trials found that highly specific anti-inflammatory therapies using monoclonal antibodies against cytokines resulted in lower cardiovascular mortality in patients with pre-existing atherosclerotic disease. In addition, unspecific antiinflammatory medication and established cardiovascular drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory properties such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or statins have proven beneficial cardiovascular effects. Normalization of oxidative stress seems to be a common feature of these therapies, which can be explained by a close interaction/crosstalk of the cellular redox state and inflammatory processes. In this review we give an overview about cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources and processes of cardiac inflammation, as well as the connection of ROS and inflammation, in ischemic cardiomyopathy in order to shed light on possible cardioprotective interventions.
Cardiac disease, inflammation, oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory therapy, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac remodeling, cardioprotection.
Department of Cardiology 1 – Molecular Cardiology, University Medical Center Mainz, Department of Cardiology 1 – Molecular Cardiology, University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen