Firoz Anwar*, Hisham N. Altayb, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Vikas Kumar and Mohammad Amjad Kamal*
The spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), are both considered the key factors for the initiation of virus infection. The present work is an effort for a computational target to block the spike proteins (S) and ACE2 receptor proteins with Macrolide antibiotics like Azithromycin, (AZM), Clarithromycin (CLAM) and Erythromycin (ERY) along with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). These compounds were able to block the residues (Arg553, Arg555, and Ala558) surrounding the deep grove catalytic site (Val557) of RdRp and thus plays an important role in tight blocking of enzyme active site. Reference drug Remdesivir was used to compare the docking score of antibiotics with RdRp. Docking value exhibited good binding energy (-7.7 up to -8.2 kcal/mol) with RdRp, indicating their potential as a potent RdRp inhibitor. Interaction of CLAM and ERY presented low binding energy (-6.8 and -6.6) with the ACE2 receptor. At the same time, CLAM exhibited a good binding affinity of -6.4 kcal/mol, making it an excellent tool to block the attachment of spike protein to ACE2 receptors. Macrolides not only affected the attachment to ACE2 but also blocked the spike proteins further, consequently inhibiting the internalization in the host cell. Three Alkyl bonds between Arg555, Ala558, and Met542 by CLAM and two Alkyl bonds of Arg624 and Lys621 by ERY plays an important role for RdRp inactivation that can prevent the rise of newly budded progeny virus. These macrolides interacted with the main protease protein in the pocket responsible for the dimerization and catalytic function of this protein. The interaction occurred with residue Glu166, along with the catalytic residues (Tyr343, and His235) of Endoribonuclease (NSP15) protein. The present study gives three-way options either by blocking S proteins or ACE2 receptor proteins or inhibiting RdRp to counter any effect of COVID-19 by macrolide and could be useful in the treatment of COVID-19 till some better option available.
COVID-19, Spike proteins, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, ACE2, Macrolides.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Natural Product Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shalom Institute of Health and Allied Sciences. SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj, West China School of Nursing / Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan