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Autism - A Comprehensive Array of Prominent Signs and Symptoms

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 11 ]

Author(s):

Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Bibi Nazia Murtaza*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi, Akbar Ali, Mazin A. Zamzami, Jalaluddin A. Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Mujaddad Ur Rehman and Imran Kazmi*   Pages 1418 - 1433 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple psychological and physiological impairments in young children. According to the recent reports, 1 out of every 58 newly-born children is suffering from autism. The aetiology of the disorder is complex and poorly understood, hindering the adaptation of targeted and effective therapies. There are no well- established diagnostic biomarkers for autism. Hence the analysis of symptoms by the pediatricians plays a critical role in the early intervention.

Methods: In the present report, we have emphasized 24 behavioral, psychological and clinical symptoms of autism.

Results: Impaired social interaction, restrictive and narrow interests, anxiety, depression; aggressive, repetitive, rigid and self-injurious behavior, lack of consistency, short attention span, fear, shyness and phobias, hypersensitivity and rapid mood alterations, high level of food and toy selectivity; inability to establish friendships or follow the instructions; fascination by round spinning objects and eating non-food materials are common psychological characteristics of autism. Speech or hearing impairments, poor cognitive function, gastrointestinal problems, weak immunity, disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms, weak motor neuromuscular interaction, lower level of serotonin and neurotransmitters, headache and body pain are common physiological symptoms.

Conclusion: A variable qualitative and quantitative impact of this wide range of symptoms is perceived in each autistic individual, making him/her distinct, incomparable and exceptional. Selection and application of highly personalized medical and psychological therapies are therefore recommended for the management and treatment of autism.

Keywords:

Children, autism, symptoms, psychology, physiology, gastrointestinal.

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Department of Zoology, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abbottabad, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, College of Pharmacy, Northern Border University Rafha 1321, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Health Information Technology Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Department of Zoology, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abbottabad, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589



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