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Chloroquine Analogs: An Overview of Natural and Synthetic Quinolines as Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agents

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 9 ]


Veera Bramhachari Pallaval, Manasa Kanithi, Sangeetha Meenakshisundaram, Achanta Jagadeesh, Mattareddy Alavala, Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Manoj Manickam* and Bojjibabu Chidipi*   Pages 1185 - 1193 ( 9 )


SARS-CoV-2, a positive single-stranded RNA enveloped coronavirus, currently poses a global health threat. Drugs with quinoline scaffolds have been studied to repurpose their useful broad-spectrum properties into treating various diseases, including viruses. Preliminary studies on the quinoline medications, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, against SARS-CoV-2, have shown to be a potential area of interest for drug development due to their ability to prevent viral entry, act as anti-inflammatory modulators, and inhibit key enzymes allowing reduced viral infectivity. In addition to Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, we discussed analogs of the drugs to understand the quinoline scaffold’s potential antiviral mechanisms. The heterocyclic scaffold of quinoline can be modified in many ways, primarily through the modification of its substituents. We studied these different synthetic derivatives to understand properties that could enhance its antiviral specificity thoroughly. Chloroquine and its analogs can act on various stages of the viral life cycle, pre and post entry. In this study, we reviewed chloroquine and its synthetic and natural analogs for their antiviral properties in a variety of viruses. Furthermore, we reviewed the compound’s potential abilities to attenuate symptoms associated with viral infections. Natural compounds that share scaffolding to chloroquine can act as antivirals or attenuate symptoms through the stimulation of the host immune system or reduction of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we discuss perspectives of the drug’s repurposing due to its ability to inhibit the beta-hematin formation and to be a Zinc Ionophore.


Natural compounds, SARS-CoV-2, quinoline chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, antivirals, COVID-19.


Department of Biotechnology, Krishna University, Machilipatnam-521003, Andhra Pradesh, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33612, Department of Chemistry, Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, Department of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-744, School of Life and Health Sciences, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh 533296, Pharma Center Bonn, Pharmaceutical Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 4, D-53121 Bonn, Department of Chemistry, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33612

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