Shah Khalid*, Faisal A. Almalki, Taibi Ben Hadda*, Ammar Bader, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Malika Berredjem, Eman R. Elsharkawy and Ali M . Alqahtani* Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )
Cannabis sativa is a well-known plant which has been of benefit since ancient times in several medicinal systems, including Chinese, Indian, Greek and Egyptian ones. Although C. sativa is one of the most investigated medicinal plants in the world, it faces the most controversial of issues for its legalization as a medication. C. sativa contains several hundreds of phytoconstituents including the infamous «cannabinoid.” It is necessary to properly understand the medicinal importance of these phytochemicals and spread awareness among the countries where it’s still facing legal complexities. The current review is focusing on most recent literature pertaining to the various applications of cannabinoids with a special focus on medicinal aspect of the phytochemicals. Peer reviewed articles focusing on the importance of cannabis and cannabinoids were the target of this review. Articles were selected based on the relevance to the general scope of the work i.e. application of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can truly be regarded as wonder drug keeping their immense diversity of usage but unfortunately, many of the mares never researched biologically or pharmacologically due to their low yield in the plant. However, the approval of some cannabinoids by the FDA (along with other recognized national medical health systems) has opened the horizons for the explicit use of these natural drugs in medicines such as Epidiolex® (cannabidiol used for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy) and Sativex®(‘Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol’ used for the treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis, aka: MS.) Many pharmacological properties of C. sativa are attributed to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component, along with Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), a psychoactive component. This review addresses the most important application or current utilization of cannabinoids in a variety of treatments such as: chronic pain, cancer, emesis, anorexia, irritable bowel syndrome, communicative diseases, glaucoma and central nervous system disorders. The biosynthetic pathway of cannabinoids is also discussed. In short, this plant has a myriad of bioactive compounds which have the potential to increase the list of approved cannabinoids suitable for therapy.
Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinoids, THC, CBD, Therapeutic and Industrial Applications.
Department of Botany, Islamia College, Peshawar, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Almukkarramah, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Almukkarramah, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Almukkarramah, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain Campus, Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry LCOA, Synthesis of biomolecules and molecular modelling Group, BadjiMokhtar - Annaba University, Box 12, 23000 Annaba, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Northern Borders University, Arar, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, 62529