Dimos Karangelis*, C. David Mazer, Dimitrios Stakos, Aphrodite Tzifa, Spiros Loggos, Subodh Verma and Fotios Mitropoulos Pages 1 - 10 ( 10 )
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a considerable risk of cardiovascular and renal disease, including heart failure. Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have demonstrated unprecedented cardiorenal protective effects in large scale clinical trials of patients with or without diabetes and either established cardiovascular disease (CV) or multiple CV risk factors.
Objective. Herein we aim to focus on the role of SGLT2 inhibitors regarding the improvement in heart failure outcomes and the proposed mechanisms of action by which these drugs confer their beneficial effect.
Methods. PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify eligible articles which are comprehensively summarized and discussed.
Results. The most commonly discussed mechanisms of action are diuresis and natriuresis, reduction in preload, afterload, and ventricular mass, as well as stimulation of erythropoietin production and improved myocardial energetics. SGLT2 inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with established heart failure (HF) and reduce the risk of death and HF admissions in patients with established chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), either with or without diabetes.
Conclusion: Potential key mechanisms that may explain the notable cardioprotective benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors have been outlined. These agents have recently received class Ia recommendation in specific groups of people with DM to lower the risk of hospitalization for HF and risk of death, while these benefits may also extend to people without diabetes. It remains to be seen whether they will also emerge as treatment approaches in the acute phase of CV episodes.
SGLT2 inhibitors, heart failure, cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, cardioprotective effects, antidiabetics
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Mitera Hospital, Athens, Greece, 6 Erythrou Stavrou street, 15123, Marousi, Athens, Department of Anesthesia, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Cardiology Department, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Department of Congenital Cardiology, Mitera Hospital, Athens, Greece, 6 Erythrou Stavrou Street, 15123, Marousi, Athens, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Mitera Hospital, Athens, Greece, 6 Erythrou Stavrou street, 15123, Marousi, Athens, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King’s College London, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Mitera Hospital, Athens, Greece, 6 Erythrou Stavrou street, 15123, Marousi, Athens