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The Role of microRNAs in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Complications

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 46 ]

Author(s):

Stavroula A. Paschou*, Gerasimos Siasos, Niki Katsiki, Nikolaos Tentolouris and Dimitrios Tousoulis   Pages 5969 - 5979 ( 11 )

Abstract:


MicroRNAs represent a class of small (19-25 nucleotides) single-strand pieces of RNA that are noncoding ones. They are synthesized by RNA polymerase II from transcripts that fold back on themselves. They mostly act as gene regulatory agents that pair with complementary sequences on mRNA and produce silencing complexes, which, in turn, suppress coding genes at a post-transcriptional level. There is now evidence that microRNAs may affect insulin secretion or insulin action, as they can alter pancreatic beta cells development, insulin production, as well as insulin signaling. Any molecular disorder that affects these pathways can deteriorate insulin resistance and lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset. Furthermore, the expression of several microRNAs is up- or down-regulated in the presence of diabetic microvascular complications (i.e., peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, foot ulcers), as well as in patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. However, more evidence is needed, specifically regarding T2DM patients, to establish the use of such microRNAs as diagnostical biomarkers or therapeutic targets in daily practice.

Keywords:

Diabetes, type 2, microRNAs, insulin, RNA, complications.

Affiliation:

Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527Athens, Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Centre, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Diabetes Center, First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens



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