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Gender Differences in Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

Author(s):

Maria Bergami, Marialuisa Scarpone, Edina Cenko, Elisa Varotti, Peter Louis Amaduzzi and Olivia Manfrini*   Pages 1 - 12 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Subjects affected by ischemic heart disease with non-obstructive coronary arteries constitute a population that has received increasing attention over the past two decades. Since the first studies with coronary angiography, female patients have been reported to have non-obstructive coronary artery disease more frequently than their male counterparts, both in stable and acute clinical settings. Although traditionally considered a relatively infrequent and low-risk form of myocardial ischemia, its impact on clinical practice is undeniable, especially when it comes to infarction, where the prognosis is not as benign as previously assumed. Unfortunately, despite increasing awareness, there are still several questions left unanswered regarding diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide a state of the art and an update on current evidence available on gender differences in clinical characteristics, management and prognosis of ischemic heart disease with non-obstructive coronary arteries, both in the acute and stable clinical setting.

Keywords:

non-obstructive CAD, MINOCA, women, female sex, sex differences, gender differences, prognosis.

Affiliation:

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna



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