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Fighting Diabetes Mellitus: Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Approaches

Author(s):

Xin Wang, Jinhong Kang, Qing Liu, Tao Tong* and Helong Quan   Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: The increasing worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus confers heavy public health issues and points to a large medical need for effective and novel anti-diabetic approaches with negligible adverse effects. Developing effective and novel anti-diabetic approaches to curb diabetes is one of the most foremost scientific challenges.

Objectives: This article aims to provide an overview of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches available for management of diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Research articles that focused on pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for diabetes were collected from various search engines such as Science Direct and Scopus, using keywords like diabetes, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose homeostasis, etc.

Results: We review in detail several key pathways and pharmacological targets (e.g., the G protein-coupled receptorscyclic adenosine monophosphate, 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, sodium-glucose cotransporters 2, and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma signaling pathways) that are vital in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The currently approved diabetes medications, the pharmacological potentials of naturally occurring compounds as promising interventions for diabetes, and the non-pharmacological methods designed to mitigate diabetes are summarized and discussed.

Conclusion: Pharmacological-based approaches such as insulin, metformin, sodium-glucose cotransporters 2 inhibitor, sulfonylureas, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors represent the most important strategies in diabetes management. These approved diabetes medications work via targeting the central signaling pathways related to the etiology of diabetes. Non-pharmacological approaches including dietary modification, increased physical activity, and microbiota-based therapy are the other cornerstones for diabetes treatment. Pharmacological-based approaches may be incorporated when lifestyle modification alone is insufficient to achieve positive outcomes.

Keywords:

Diabetes mellitus, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, G protein-coupled receptors, peroxisome proliferator activatedreceptor gamma, sodium-glucose cotransporters 2, 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, glucose homeostasis.

Affiliation:

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Jilin Green Food Engineering Research Institute, Changchun, 130022, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, Exercise and Metabolism Research Center, College of Physical Education and Health Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, 321004



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