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Nanoparticles for Targeting of Prostate Cancer

Author(s):

Hooman Yari, Hariprasad Gali and Vibhudutta Awasthi*   Pages 1 - 21 ( 21 )

Abstract:


Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of death by cancer in men. Because of the drastic decline in the survival rate of PCa patients with advanced/metastatic disease, early diagnosis of disease and therapy without toxic side effects is crucial. Chemotherapy is widely used to control the progression of PCa at the later stages; however, it is associated with off-target toxicities and severe adverse effects due to the lack of specificity. Delivery of therapeutic or diagnostic agents by using targeted nanoparticles is a promising strategy to enhance accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis of PCa and to increase efficacy and specificity of therapeutic agents. Numerous efforts have been made in past decades to create nanoparticles with different architectural bases for specific delivery payloads to prostate tumors. Major PCa associated cell membrane protein markers identified as targets for such purposes include folate receptor, sigma receptors, transferrin receptor, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and prostate specific membrane antigen. Among these markers, prostate specific membrane antigen has emerged as an extremely specific and sensitive targetable marker for designing targeted nanoparticle-based delivery systems for PCa. In this article, we review contemporary advances in design, specificity, and efficacy of nanoparticles functionalized against PCa. Whenever feasible, both diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications are discussed.

Keywords:

Nanoparticle, prostate cancer, folate receptor, sigma receptors, transferrin receptor, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and prostate specific membrane antigen.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma



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