Jamaira A. Victorio, Rafael M. da Costa, Rita C. Tostes and Ana P. Davel* Pages 3768 - 3777 ( 10 )
In addition to the endothelium, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been described to be involved in the local modulation of vascular function by synthetizing and releasing vasoactive factors. Under physiological conditions, PVAT has anticontractile and anti-inflammatory effects. However, in the context of hypertension, obesity and type 2 diabetes, the PVAT pattern of anticontractile adipokines is altered, favoring oxidative stress, inflammation and, consequently, vascular dysfunction. Therefore, dysfunctional PVAT has become a target for therapeutic intervention in cardiometabolic diseases. An increasing number of studies have revealed sex differences in PVAT morphology and in the modulatory effects of PVAT on endothelial function and vascular tone. Moreover, distinct mechanisms underlying PVAT dysfunction may account for vascular abnormalities in males and females. Therefore, targeting sex-specific mechanisms of PVAT dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases is an evolving strategy for cardiovascular protection.
Perivascular adipose tissue, sex differences, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular.
Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas-SP, Special Academic Unit of Health Sciences, Federal University of Goias-Jatai, Jatai-GO, Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP, Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas-SP