Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Skin Permeation of Nanoparticles: Mechanisms Involved and Critical Factors Governing Topical Drug Delivery

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 36 ]

Author(s):

Taha Umair Wani, Roohi Mohi-ud-Din*, Asmat Majeed, Shabnam Kawoosa and Faheem Hyder Pottoo*   Pages 4601 - 4614 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Transdermal route has been an ever sought-after means of drug administration, regarded as being the most convenient and patient compliant. However, skin poses a great barrier to the entry of the external particles including bacteria, viruses, allergens, and drugs as well (mostly hydrophilic or high molecular weight drugs), consequent to its complex structure and composition. Among the various means of enhancing drug permeation through the skin, e.g. chemical permeation enhancers, electroporation, thermophoresis, etc. drug delivery through nanoparticles has been of great interest. Current literature reports a vast number of nanoparticles that have been implicated for drug delivery through the skin. However, a precise account of critical factors involved in drug delivery and mechanisms concerning the permeation of nanoparticles through the skin is necessary. The purpose of this review is to enumerate the factors crucial in governing the prospect of drug delivery through skin and classify the skin permeation mechanisms of nanoparticles. Among the various mechanisms discussed are the ones governed by principles of kinetics, osmotic gradient, adhesion, hydration, diffusion, occlusion, electrostatic interaction, thermodynamics, etc. Among the most common factors affecting skin permeation of nanoparticles that are discussed include size, shape, surface charge density, composition of nanoparticles, mechanical stress, pH, etc.

Keywords:

Nanoparticles, drug delivery, permeation, skin, electrostatic interaction, thermodynamics.

Affiliation:

Pharmaceutics Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006, Kashmir, Pharmacogosy and Phytochemistry Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006, Kashmir, Pharmaceutics Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006, Kashmir , Pharmaceutics Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006, Kashmir , Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, P.O. BOX 1982, Dammam



Read Full-Text article