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A Review on the Progress and Prospects of Dengue Drug Discovery Targeting NS5 RNA- Dependent RNA Polymerase

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 35 ]

Author(s):

Venkatanarayana Chowdary Maddipati, Lovika Mittal, Manohar Mantipally, Shailendra Asthana, Sankar Bhattacharyya and Rambabu Gundla*   Pages 4386 - 4409 ( 24 )

Abstract:


Dengue virus (DENV) infection threatens the health and wellbeing of almost 100 million people in the world. Vectored by mosquitoes, DENV may cause a severe disease in human hosts called Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/Dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which is not preventable by any known drug. In the absence of a universally-accepted vaccine, a drug capable of inhibiting DENV multiplication is an urgent and unmet clinical need. Here we summarize inhibitory strategies by targeting either host biochemical pathways or virus-encoded proteins. A variety of approaches have been generated to design Directly-acting anti-virals or DAAs targeting different DENV proteins, with diverse success. Among them, DAAs targeting genome replicating viral enzymes have proven effective against many viruses including, Human Immuno-deficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus. DAAs may be derived either from existing compound libraries of novel molecules and plant secondary metabolites or devised through Computer-aided Drug design (CADD) methods. Here, we focus on compounds with reported DAA-activity against the DENV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which replicate the viral RNA genome. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and toxicity of the natural compounds, including secondary plant metabolites, have been discussed in detail. We have also tabulated novel compounds with known anti-RdRp activity. We concluded with a list of DAAs for which a co-crystal structure with RdRp is reported. Promising hit compounds are often discarded due to poor selectivity or unsuitable pharmacokinetics. We hope this review will provide a useful reference for further studies on the development of an anti-DENV drug.

Keywords:

Dengue virus, Directly-acting anti-viral, DAA, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, plant secondary metabolites, nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Hyderabad 502329, Telangana, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rdMilestone, Faridabad-Gurugram Expressway, Faridabad - 121001, Haryana, Department of Chemistry, School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Hyderabad 502329, Telangana, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rdMilestone, Faridabad-Gurugram Expressway, Faridabad - 121001, Haryana, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rdMilestone, Faridabad-Gurugram Expressway, Faridabad - 121001, Haryana, Department of Chemistry, School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Hyderabad 502329, Telangana



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