Michele Paulo, Daniela E. F. R. Costa, Daniella Bonaventura, Claure N. Lunardi and Lusiane M. Bendhack* Pages 3748 - 3759 ( 12 )
Endothelial dysfunction and consequent vasoconstriction are a common condition in patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial cells produce and release vasodilator substances that play a pivotal role in normal vascular tone. The mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multifactorial. However, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and consequent vasoconstriction instead of endothelium-derived relaxant generation and consequent vasodilatation contribute to this dysfunction considerably. The main targets of the drugs that are currently used to treat vascular diseases concerning enzyme activities and protein functions that are impaired by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and ROS production. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability can decrease due to deficient NO production by eNOS and/or NO release to vascular smooth muscle cells, which impairs endothelial function. Considering the NO cellular mechanisms, tackling the issue of eNOS uncoupling could avoid endothelial dysfunction: provision of the enzyme cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) should elicit NO release from NO donors, to activate soluble guanylyl cyclase. This should increase cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) generation and inhibit phosphodiesterases (especially PDE5) that selectively degrade cGMP. Consequently, protein kinase-G should be activated, and K+ channels should be phosphorylated and activated, which is crucial for cell membrane hyperpolarization and vasodilation and/or inhibition of ROS production. The present review summarizes the current concepts about the vascular cellular mechanisms that underlie endothelial dysfunction and which could be the target of drugs for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease.
NO donors, endothelial dysfunction, vascular diseases, NO production, tolerance to nitrovadilators, cGMP.
Department Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto- University of Sao Paulo Av. Do Cafe SN, Department of Pharmacology, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Department of Pharmacology, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Department Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto- University of Sao Paulo Av. Do Cafe SN