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Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation in Ischemic Stroke Pathogenesis

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 34 ]

Author(s):

A. Tuttolomondo*, Mario Daidone and Antonio Pinto   Pages 4209 - 4219 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Stroke is a heterogeneous disease, and within the broad category of brain ischemia and its subtypes vary dramatically in its etiology.

The endothelium can regulate the vascular homeostasis by modulating processes of vascular dilation and constriction by producing and secreting cytokines and chemical mediators, and inflammation represents one of the most important factors that contribute to alteration in vessel structure and function by dysregulation of this fine balance.

Endothelial dysfunction means a basic determinant of the vascular damage, which can be identified in all different clinical subtypes of stroke, and, recently, it has been recognized as an interesting determinant of cerebrovascular risk. The entire spectrum of inflammatory processes is likely to act in concert, and cytokines are important mediators of stroke by inducing immunological/inflammatory reactions, which contribute to brain infarct progression as well as to the disease severity and outcome.

Results from recent studies and ongoing and future researches will allow characterizing these complex mechanisms better and finally leading to innovative therapeutic strategies that may change the natural history of this severe and disabling disease significantly.

Keywords:

Endothelium, inflammation, ischemic, stroke.

Affiliation:

Department of Health Promotion, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche n.2, 90127 Palermo, Department of Health Promotion, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche n.2, 90127 Palermo, Department of Health Promotion, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche n.2, 90127 Palermo



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