Javier Blanco-Rivero and Fabiano E. Xavier* Pages 3633 - 3651 ( 19 )
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are considered a major health problem worldwide, being the main cause of mortality in developing and developed countries. Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by a decline in nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability, increased oxidative stress, decreased prostacyclin levels, and a reduction of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor is considered an important prognostic indicator of various CVD. Changes in cyclic nucleotides production and/ or signalling, such as guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP), also accompany many vascular disorders that course with altered endothelial function. Phosphodiesterases (PDE) are metallophosphohydrolases that catalyse cAMP and cGMP hydrolysis, thereby terminating the cyclic nucleotide-dependent signalling. The development of drugs that selectively block the activity of specific PDE families remains of great interest to the research, clinical and pharmaceutical industries. In the present review, we will discuss the effects of PDE inhibitors on CVD related to altered endothelial function, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, stroke, aging and cirrhosis. Multiple evidences suggest that PDEs inhibition represents an attractive medical approach for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction-related diseases. Selective PDE inhibitors, especially PDE3 and PDE5 inhibitors are proposed to increase vascular NO levels by increasing antioxidant status or endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activation and to improve the morphological architecture of the endothelial surface. Thereby, selective PDE inhibitors can improve the endothelial function in various CVD, increasing the evidence that these drugs are potential treatment strategies for vascular dysfunction and reinforcing their potential role as an adjuvant in the pharmacotherapy of CVD.
Phosphodiesterases, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP.
Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife