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Bacterial Resistance: Antibiotics of Last Generation used in Clinical Practice and the Arise of Natural Products as New Therapeutic Alternatives

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Rúbia C.G. Corrêa, Sandrina A. Heleno*, Maria J. Alves and Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira*   Pages 815 - 837 ( 23 )

Abstract:


Bacterial resistance to therapeutical drugs has been a serious issue over the last decades. In fact, the quick development of resistance mechanisms by the microorganisms has been fatal for millions of people around the world, turning into a public health issue. The major cause of the resistance mechanisms is the overuse of antimicrobials. European countries try to implement mechanisms to overcome antimicrobial resistance in the community through the rational use of antimicrobials. The scientific community has been exhaustively dedicated to the discovering of new, safer and efficient drugs, being the exploitation of natural resources, mainly plants and fungi, considered as a hot topic in the field of antimicrobial agents. Innumerous reports have already shown the promising capacity of natural products or molecules extracted from these natural resources, to act as bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents. More importantly, these natural agents present significantly lower harmful effects. Bearing that in mind, this review aims at giving a contribution to the knowledge about the synthetic antibiotics of the last generation. Moreover, it is intended to provide information about the last advances regarding the discovery of new antimicrobial agents. Thus, a compilation of the chemical characteristics, efficiency, harmful outcomes and resistance mechanisms developed by the microorganisms can be consulted in the following sections together with a critical discussion, in line with the recent approaches. Furthermore, modern strategies for the prospection of novel anti-infective compounds for tackling resistant bacteria have been considered as also a current synopsis of plants and mushrooms with relevant antimicrobial potentials.

Keywords:

Antibiotics of last generation, microbial resistance, natural antimicrobial agents, mechanisms of action, multiresistant microorganisms, antimicrobial therapeutics.

Affiliation:

Centro de Investigacao de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, Braganca, Centro de Investigacao de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, Braganca, Centro de Investigacao de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, Braganca, Centro de Investigacao de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, Braganca



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