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Traditional Risk Factors are Causally Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Progression: Inferences from Observational Cohort Studies and Interventional Trials

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Beatrice Frigerio, José P. Werba, Mauro Amato, Alessio Ravani, Daniela Sansaro, Daniela Coggi, Lorenzo Vigo, Elena Tremoli and Damiano Baldassarre*   Pages 11 - 24 ( 14 )

Abstract:


In the present review, associations between traditional vascular risk factors (VRFs) and carotid intimamedial thickness progression (C-IMTp) as well as the effects of therapies for VRFs control on C-IMTp were appraised to infer causality between each VRF and C-IMTp. Cohort studies indicate that smoking, binge drinking, fatness, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are associated with accelerated C-IMTp. An exception is physical activity, with mixed data. Interventions for the control of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia decelerate C-IMTp. Conversely, scarce information is available regarding the effect of smoking cessation, stop of excessive alcohol intake and management of the metabolic syndrome. Altogether, these data support a causative role of several traditional VRFs on C-IMTp. Shortcomings in study design and/or ultrasonographic protocols may account for most negative studies, which underlines the importance of careful consideration of methodological aspects in investigations using C-IMTp as the outcome.

Keywords:

Atherosclerosis, risk factors, carotid intima-medial thickness, atherosclerosis progression, ultrasonography, hypercholesterolemia.

Affiliation:

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Universita di Milano, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan



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