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The Journey of Thiazolidinediones as Modulators of PPARs for the Management of Diabetes: A Current Perspective

[ Vol. 25 , Issue. 23 ]

Author(s):

Waquar Ahsan*   Pages 2540 - 2554 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) also known as glitazone receptors are a family of receptors that regulate the expression of genes and have an essential role in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism apart from other functions. PPARs come in 3 sub-types: PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ and PPAR-γ - with PPAR-γ having 2 isoforms - γ1 and γ2. Upon activation, the PPARs regulate the transcription of various genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, increasing insulin sensitivity, prevention of oxidative stress and to a certain extent, modulation of immune responses via macrophages that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Hence, PPARs are an attractive molecular target for designing new anti-diabetic drugs. This has led to a boost in the research efforts directed towards designing of PPAR ligands - particularly ones that can selectively and specifically activate one or more of the PPAR subtypes. Though, PPAR- γ full agonists such as Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are well established agents for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the side effect profile associated with TZDs has potentiated an imminent need to come up with newer agents that act through this pathway. Several newer derivatives having TZD scaffold have been designed using structure based drug designing technique and computational tools and tested for their PPAR binding affinity and efficacy in combating T2D and some have shown promising activities. This review would focus on the role of PPARs in the management of T2D; recently reported TZD derivatives which acted as agonists of PPAR- γ and its subtypes and are potentially useful in the new drug discovery for the disease.

Keywords:

Thiazolidinediones, glitazones, PPAR, antidiabetic drugs, structure activity relationship, drug discovery.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, P. Box No. 114, Jazan



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