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Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists for Nephroprotection: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 46 ]

Author(s):

Pantelis A. Sarafidis*, Evangelos Memmos, Maria-Eleni Alexandrou and Aikaterini Papagianni   Pages 5528 - 5536 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: The use of single RAS-blockade is currently the recommended first-line treatment for proteinuric diabetic or non-diabetic nephropathy, as these agents were repeatedly shown in studies with hard renal outcomes to retard the progression of renal injury. However, CKD will continue to progress on optimum single RAS-blockade, and other options to ameliorate renal injury were explored. Dual RAS-blockade was associated with an increased risk of adverse-events with no apparent benefits and, therefore, is currently abandoned.

Based on the phenomenon of aldosterone escape and the well-documented harmful effects of aldosterone on renal tissue, several randomized trials have studied the effects of a MRA in diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy.

Method: This is a review of the literature in relevance to data evaluating the effect of MRA on renal outcomes.

Results: Studies with spironolactone and eplerenone added to single RAS-blockade showed that these agents are associated with greater reductions in urine albumin or protein excretion compared to either placebo or dual RASblockade. However, studies with these agents on hard renal outcomes are currently missing and the reasonable skepticism of physicians on the real-world incidence of hyperkalemia in CKD patients are limiting their use. A non-steroidal MRA, finerenone, has also great potency in decreasing albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy with possibly lower rates of hyperkalemia. Two multi-center clinical trials examining the effect of finerenone on hard cardiovascular and renal outcomes are currently ongoing.

Conclusion: MRAs are able to reduce albuminuria and proteinuria on top of single RAS-blockade in patients with proteinuric CKD. Ongoing clinical trials are expected to clarify whether such an effect is accompanied by delay in CKD progression.

Keywords:

Chronic kidney disease, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, albuminuria, proteinuria, spironolactone, eplerenone, finerenone.

Affiliation:

Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki



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