Vasilios Papademetriou*, Maria Toumpourleka, Konstantinos P. Imprialos, Sofia Alataki, Alexandros Manafis and Konstantinos Stavropoulos Pages 1 - 8 ( 8 )
Background: Heart failure (HF) is a worldwide modern epidemic, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several causes have been identified for the syndrome, most of which share common pathophysiologic pathways, including neurohormonal activation. Central to the latter, lies activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and its effects on cardiovascular disease progression.
Objectives: The aim of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of aldosterone and the effects of its blockage in the failing heart, as well as to provide state-of-the-art evidence, and address future perspectives regarding the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
Method: Literature was reviewed for studies that assess the pathophysiology of aldosterone in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in this condition.
Results: Several major society guidelines have synthesized the available evidence on HFrEF management, and drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system at different levels continue to form the key component of standard of care for these patients. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are an important part of HFrEF pharmacologic treatment, and their use is supported by high level of evidence studies. This class of drugs demonstrated significant benefits for morbidity and mortality, across the spectrum oh HFrEF, including patients after acute myocardial infarction.
Conclusion: Current evidence supports the central role of aldosterone in HFrEF progression, and the significant benefits on outcomes with the use of MRAs.
heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, aldosterone, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, spironolactone, eplerenone
Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Medical Clinic IV-Department of Cardiology, Manicipal Hospital Karlsruhe, Academic Teaching Hospital, University of Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC