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Nanocrystals: An Overview of Fabrication, Characterization and Therapeutic Applications in Drug Delivery

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 43 ]

Author(s):

Vishwas P. Pardhi, Tejesh Verma, S.J.S. Flora, Hardik Chandasana* and Rahul Shukla*   Pages 5129 - 5146 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Approximately 40 % drugs in the market are having poor aqueous solubility related problems and 70 % molecules in discovery pipeline are being practically insoluble in water. Nanocrystals is a prominent tool to solve the issue related to poor aqueous solubility and helps in improving the bioavailability of many drugs as reported in the literature. Nanocrystals can be prepared by top down methods, bottom up methods and combination methods. Many patented products such as Nanocrystals®, DissoCubes®, NANOEDGE® and SmartCrystals ®, etc., are available, which are based on these three preparation methodologies. The particle size reduction resulted into unstable nanocrystalline system and the phenomenon of Ostawald ripening occurs. This instability issue could be resolved by using an appropriate stabilizers or combination of stabilizers. The nanosuspensions could be transformed to the solid state to prevent particle aggregation in liquid state by employing various unit operations such as lyophilisation, spray drying, granulation and pelletisation. These techniques are well known for their scalability and continuous nanocrystal formation advantages. Nanocrystals can be characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powdered x- ray diffraction and photon correlation spectroscopy. The downscaling of nanocrystals will enable rapid optimization of nanosuspension formulation in parallel screening design of preclinical developmental stage drug moieties. One of the most acceptable advantages of nanocrystals is their wide range of applicability such as oral delivery, ophthalmic delivery, pulmonary delivery, transdermal delivery, intravenous delivery and targeting (brain and tumor targeting). The enhancement in market value of nanocrystals as well as the amount of nanocrystal products in the market is gaining attention to be used as an approach in order to get commercial benefits.

Keywords:

Nanocrystals, Ostwald ripening, bioavailability, preclinical development, tumor targeting, lyophilisation.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Raebareli, 229010, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Raebareli, 229010, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Raebareli, 229010, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32611, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Raebareli, 229010



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