Saloni Daftardar, Rabin Neupane, Sai HS. Boddu*, Jwala Renukuntla and Amit Tiwari
Low frequency ultrasound-assisted drug delivery has been widely investigated as a non-invasive method to enhance the transdermal penetration of drugs. Using this technique, a brief application of ultrasound is used to permeabilize skin for a prolonged time. In this review, an overview on ultrasound is detailed to help explain the parameters that could be modulated to obtain the desired ultrasound parameters for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. The mechanisms of enhancement and the latest developments in the area of ultrasound-assisted transdermal drug delivery are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the effects of ultrasound when used in combination with microneedles, electroporation and iontophoresis, and penetration enhancers. Further, this review summarizes the effect of ultrasound on skin integrity and the regulatory requirements for commercialization of the ultrasound based transdermal delivery instruments.
Ultrasound, low frequency ultrasound-assisted drug delivery, ultrasound bioeffects, cavitation, transducers, skin integrity, regulations
College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, School of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614