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Pharmacotherapy for Choroidal Neovascularization Due to Uncommon Causes

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 41 ]


Christine P.S. Ho and Timothy Y.Y. Lai*   Pages 4882 - 4895 ( 14 )


Background: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in adults is most commonly associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pathologic myopia. Though less common, CNV can also develop from other conditions such as uveitis, central serous chorioretinopathy, angioid streaks, intraocular tumors, hereditary chorioretinal dystrophies, or can be idiopathic in origin. If left untreated, CNV may cause visual loss because of exudation of intraretinal or subretinal fluid, retinal or subretinal hemorrhage, or fibrosis involving the macula. It is well known that one of the main drivers of angiogenesis in CNV development is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and therefore inhibitors of VEGF might be an effective treatment for CNV.

Methods: The goal of this review is to provide an overview and summary in the use of pharmacotherapy especially anti-VEGF therapy, in the treatment of CNV due to uncommon causes.

Results: Results from uncontrolled case series and controlled clinical trials have reported good efficacy and safety in using anti-VEGF agents including bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept in the treatment of CNV due to uncommon causes. Anti-VEGF has also been used in combination with verteporfin PDT and anti-inflammatory agents for treating CNV of various causes.

Conclusion: Pharmacotherapy with anti-VEGF agents is an effective treatment option for CNV due to uncommon etiologies.


Choroidal neovascularization, anti-VEGF therapy, uveitis, angioid streak, central serous chorioretinopathy, pathologic myopia.


Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon

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